Accounting Jobs – Adding Up Your Choices

Accountants manage, allocate and monitor financial resources in compliance with laws, regulations and policies, to ensure these resources are efficiently applied to meet organizational goals and objectives. They research, analyze and process information related to accounting transactions/events to ensure completeness and accuracy of data and prepare, review and reconcile financial statements and other reports to meet reporting requirements and to support management decisions.

Accountants apply analysis, cost, forecasting and planning methods, techniques and technology tools sufficient to ensure reports, plans and strategies are consistent with official guidance, and support program goals and initiatives. They may also design, operate, maintain, inspect and improve accounting and related financial systems to extract data, produce reports, implement or review internal controls, resolve problems, improve efficiency and maintain data integrity.

JOB ANNOUNCEMENTS

The federal government employs 13,283 in this occupation of which 79 work overseas. The DOD is the largest employer of this series with 2,893 accountants, the VA employs 909 and the Department of the Army employs 1,147 civilians in this category. This series is used in all cabinet level departments, most large agencies and many small agencies.

There are currently 730 job announcements for professional and administrative positions open in the accounting, finance, & budget area. Many with multiple vacancies at locations nationwide and overseas.

When you add up the multiple vacancies, you will discover many additional opportunities in this field for you to explore and at locations across the country. There are opportunities for both professional and

OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION

Accountants develop financial information systems in accordance with recognized accounting theory and practices as taught in academic institutions. They observe, interpret, or provide guidance on accounting principles and standards. Accountants in the federal government must meet Treasury Department and Office of Management and Budget (OMB) compilation and reporting requirements, as well as the specific financial information requirements established by legislation. Professional accounting work is creative, analytical, evaluative, or interpretive.

QUALIFICATIONS

Basic Requirements:

Degree: accounting; or a degree in a related field such as business administration, finance, or public administration that included or was supplemented by 24 semester hours in accounting. The 24 hours may include up to 6 hours of credit in business law. (The term “accounting” means “accounting and/or auditing” in this standard. Similarly, “accountant” should be interpreted, generally, as “accountant and/or auditor.”)

OR

A combination of education and experience: at least 4 years of experience in accounting, or an equivalent combination of accounting experience, college-level education, and training that provided professional accounting knowledge. The applicant’s background must also include one of the following:

  1. Twenty-four semester hours in accounting or auditing courses of appropriate type and quality. This can include up to 6 hours of business law;
  2. A certificate as Certified Public Accountant or a Certified Internal Auditor, obtained through written examination; or
  3. Completion of the requirements for a degree that included substantial course work in accounting or auditing, e.g., 15 semester hours, but that does not fully satisfy the 24-semester-hour requirement of paragraph A, provided that (a) the applicant has successfully worked at the full-performance level in accounting, auditing, or a related field, e.g., valuation engineering or financial institution examining; (b) a panel of at least two higher level professional accountants or auditors has determined that the applicant has demonstrated a good knowledge of accounting and of related and underlying fields that equals in breadth, depth, currency, and level of advancement that which is normally associated with successful completion of the 4-year course of study described in paragraph A; and (c) except for literal nonconformance to the requirement of 24 semester hours in accounting, the applicant’s education, training, and experience fully meet the specified requirements.

All federal jobs include comprehensive benefits and a generous retirement plan consisting of a fixed annuity, 401k and Social Security.

JOB VACANCY LISTINGS

The following link will take you to the GS 0510 Job Description that includes links to the current job announcements on USAJOBS.

Visit our jobs board to search for all other occupations by job title.

Don’t bypass an opportunity to apply for a federal job for fear of taking a civil service test. Discover which occupations have entrance exam requirements. Most exams have been waived over the years.

Each month we will feature a different occupation. Visit FederalJobs.net regularly to find information about federal jobs in your area.

Medical Records Technician Jobs

Medical records technicians assemble, analyze, code, abstract, report, maintain, and extract medical records information. They organize and check medical records for completeness, accuracy, and compliance with regulatory requirements. In most Federal medical centers today, the medical staffs, including medical records technicians, use automated records systems.

Specific duties of medical records technicians vary with the complexity and characteristics of the facility. Use of the latest treatment methods by health care professionals requires comprehensive medical records, in some cases with many diagnoses and treatments. The time and knowledge needed to analyze and code a record, increases in proportion to the patient’s length of stay and the complexity of the patient’s diagnosis and treatment.

JOB ANNOUNCEMENTS

Currently there are over 110 job vacancy announcements open. The Veterans Health Administration, Indian Health Services, the Bureau of Prisons and the military organizations are currently recruiting.

A number of these job announcements list multiple vacancies at various locations. For example, one of the announcements from the Department of the Air Force is hiring many for multiple locations; they will negotiate the location after you are selected for a vacancy. When you add up the multiple vacancies, you will discover many additional opportunities in this field for you to explore and at locations across the country.

EMPLOYING AGENCIES

Currently, the Veterans Health Administration is the largest employer with 3,046 followed by military organizations with 1,376, and 653 at Human Services.  You will also find positions available with the Department of Defense, Bureau of Prisons, and others. The federal government employs 5,418 medical records technicians, 35 work overseas.

QUALIFICATIONS

In order to qualify, you must meet the experience requirements described in the job announcement. Experience refers to paid and unpaid experience, including volunteer work done through National Service programs (e.g., Peace Corps, AmeriCorps) and other organizations (e.g., professional; philanthropic; religious; spiritual; community; student; social). You will receive credit for all qualifying experience, including volunteer experience. Your resume must clearly describe your relevant experience; if qualifying based on education, your transcripts will be required as part of your application. Additional information about transcripts is in this document.

Specialized Experience: One year of specialized experience as described in the job announcement for the grade level advertised such as experience entering medical data into applications, data banks: Encoder Grouper Coding Compliance Editor (CCE) and the Composite Health Care System (CHCS).

Applicants pending the completion of educational or certification/licensure requirements may be referred and tentatively selected but may not be hired until all requirements are met.

JOB VACANCY LISTINGS

The following link will take you to the GS 0675 Job Description that includes links to the current job announcements on USAJOBS.

Visit our jobs board to search for all other occupations by job title.

To find vacancies in your area, locate job announcements of interest and review the required qualifications. If you have the experience, education and/or work experience specified, apply online.

Each month we will feature a different occupation. Visit FederalJobs.net regularly to find information about federal jobs in your area.

Public Health Analyst (GS-0685) Jobs With the Federal Government

The federal government employs 3,837 public health program specialists of which 216 work overseas. The Department of Homeland Security is the largest employer with 3,591 followed by the Agency for International Development with 271.

Public health analysts may specialize in Federal public health programs, but do not usually represent those programs in dealings with non-Federal agencies and organizations. Their personal contacts are typically with people within HHS and they are primarily concerned with analyzing and evaluating the actual or potential effectiveness of current or projected public health programs in achieving objectives.

In this series public health program specialists supervise, direct, or perform work which involves providing advice and assistance to State and local governments and to various public, nonprofit, and private entities on program and administrative matters relating to the development, implementation, operation, administration, evaluation, and funding of public health activities which may be financed in whole or in part by Federal funds; or, conducting studies and performing other analytical work related to the planning, development, organization, administration, evaluation, and delivery of public health programs; or, other similar public health program work.

The job was featured by the Communicable Disease Center (CDC) and we want to briefly talk about this agency. This agency was founded in 1942 and is located in Atlanta, GA.

It is part of the Department of Health and Human Services, and is the nation’s premiere agency in promoting prevention and preparedness in the area of health.

(From the CDC website)

2017 Fast Facts

  • Headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia
  • Facilities in 10 additional locations in the U.S.
  • More than 12,000 employees in nearly 150 occupations
  • Field staff work in all 50 states, DC, Guam, Puerto Rico, the US Virgin Islands, and more than 120 countries
  • CDC’s budget in 2017: $7.2 billion

What CDC Does

  • CDC is ready 24/7 to respond to any natural or manmade event.
  • By connecting state and local health departments across the U.S., CDC can discover patterns of disease and respond when needed.
    • CDC can deliver lifesaving medicines from the Strategic National Stockpile to anywhere in the U.S. in 12 hours or less.
  • Good decision-making on health depends on the right information. CDC monitors health, informs decisionmakers, and provides people with information so they can take responsibility for their own health.
  • Local and state labs must be able to safely detect and respond to health threats in order to prevent premature death, injury, and disease. CDC trains and guides state and local public health lab partners.

CDC Saving Lives

CDC helps save lives by responding to emergencies, providing expertise, developing vaccines, and detecting disease outbreaks wherever they arise. Staff work to strengthen local and state public health departments and promote health programs that are proven to work.

CDC Protecting People

CDCs scientists collect and analyze data to determine how threats to health affect specific populations. This work protects people from hundreds of public health threats every year.

During 2015 and 2016, CDC conducted more than 750 field investigations in 49 states, 5 U.S. territories, and in at least 35 different countries. Investigations help determine what made people sick and if others have been exposed.

Government Requirements:

You must be a U.S. citizen to apply.

The yearly salary for a GS-12-14 is $75,705.00 to $150,349.00.

Typical Duties and Occupational Profile:

Medical and health services managers, also called healthcare executives or healthcare administrators, plan, direct, and coordinate medical and health services. They might manage an entire facility, a specific clinical area or department, or a medical practice for a group of physicians. Medical and health services managers must direct changes that conform to changes in healthcare laws, regulations, and technology.

Duties

Medical and health services managers typically do the following:

  • Improve efficiency and quality in delivering healthcare services
  • Develop departmental goals and objectives
  • Ensure that the facility in which they work is up to date on and compliant with laws and regulations
  • Recruit, train, and supervise staff members
  • Manage the finances of the facility, such as patient fees and billing
  • Create work schedules
  • Prepare and monitor budgets and spending to ensure departments operate within funding limits
  • Represent the facility at investor meetings or on governing boards
  • Keep and organize records of the facility’s services, such as the number of inpatient beds used
  • Communicate with members of the medical staff and department heads

Medical and health services managers work closely with physicians and surgeons, registered nurses, medical and clinical laboratory technologists and technicians, and other healthcare workers. Others may interact with patients or insurance agents.

Medical and health services managers’ titles depend on the facility or area of expertise in which they work.

The following are examples of types of medical and health services managers:

Nursing home administrators manage staff, admissions, finances, and care of the building, as well as care of the residents in nursing homes. All states require licensure for nursing home administrators; licensing requirements vary by state.

Clinical managers oversee a specific department, such as nursing, surgery, or physical therapy, and have responsibilities based on that specialty. Clinical managers set and carry out policies, goals, and procedures for their departments; evaluate the quality of the staff’s work; and develop reports and budgets.

Health information managers are responsible for the maintenance and security of all patient records and data. They must stay up to date with evolving information technology, current or proposed laws about health information systems, and trends in managing large amounts of complex data. Health information managers must ensure that databases are complete, accurate, and accessible only to authorized personnel. They also may supervise the work of medical records and health information technicians.

Medical and health services managers must effectively communicate policies and procedures with other health professionals.

Most medical and health services managers have at least a bachelor’s degree before entering the field. However, master’s degrees are common and sometimes preferred by employers. Educational requirements vary by facility and specific function.

Education

Medical and health services managers typically need at least a bachelor’s degree to enter the occupation. However, master’s degrees are common and sometimes preferred by employers. Graduate programs often last between 2 and 3 years and may include up to 1 year of supervised administrative experience in a hospital or healthcare consulting setting.

Prospective medical and health services managers typically have a degree in health administration, health management, nursing, public health administration, or business administration. Degrees that focus on both management and healthcare combine business-related courses with courses in medical terminology, hospital organization, and health information systems. For example, a degree in health administration or health information management often includes courses in health services management, accounting and budgeting, human resources administration, strategic planning, law and ethics, health economics, and health information systems.

Work Experience in a Related Occupation

Many employers require prospective medical and health services managers to have some work experience in either an administrative or a clinical role in a hospital or other healthcare facility. For example, nursing home administrators usually have years of experience working as a registered nurse.

Others may begin their careers as medical records and health information technicians, administrative assistants, or financial clerks within a healthcare office.

Important Qualities

Analytical skills. Medical and health services managers must understand and follow current regulations and adapt to new laws.

Communication skills. These managers must effectively communicate policies and procedures to other health professionals and ensure their staff’s compliance with new laws and regulations.

Detail oriented. Medical and health services managers must pay attention to detail. They might be required to organize and maintain scheduling and billing information for very large facilities, such as hospitals.

Interpersonal skills. Medical and health services managers discuss staffing problems and patient information with other professionals, such as physicians and health insurance representatives.

Leadership skills. These managers are often responsible for finding creative solutions to staffing or other administrative problems. They must hire, train, motivate, and lead staff.

Technical skills. Medical and health services managers must stay up to date with advances in healthcare technology and data analytics. For example, they may need to use coding and classification software and electronic health record (EHR) systems as their facility adopts these technologies.

Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations

All states require licensure for nursing home administrators; requirements vary by state. In most states, these administrators must have a bachelor’s degree, complete a state-approved training program, and pass a national licensing exam. Some states also require applicants to pass a state-specific exam; others may require applicants to have previous work experience in a healthcare facility. Some states also require licensure for administrators in assisted-living facilities. For information on specific state-by-state licensure requirements, visit the National Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards.

A license is typically not required in other areas of medical and health services management. However, some positions may require applicants to have a registered nurse or social worker license.

Although certification is not required, some managers choose to become certified. Certification is available in many areas of practice. For example, the Professional Association of Health Care Office Management offers certification in medical management, the American Health Information Management Association offers health information management certification, and the American College of Health Care Administrators offers the Certified Nursing Home Administrator and Certified Assisted Living Administrator distinctions.

Advancement

Medical and health services managers advance by moving into higher paying positions with more responsibility. Some health information managers, for example, can advance to become responsible for the entire hospital’s information systems. Other managers may advance to top executive positions within the organization. Advancement to top level executive positions usually requires a master’s degree.

GS-0685-Public Health Analyst

General qualifications excerpted from Job Announcement #HHS-CDC-OM-17-1949748

Responsibilities

As a Public Health Analyst you will:

  • Serves as a special projects officer and conducts comprehensive research, review and analyses on a wide variety of public health-related programs to provide a wide variety of staff papers that address multi-functional issues.
  • Serves on review committees, study groups, public health task groups, or comparable groups delegated responsibility for reviewing and developing public health policies, procedures and guidelines.
  • Reviews and assesses the effectiveness of current public health policies and determines where new or changed policies are required to effectively execute public health programs, missions, and functions.
  • Provides executive management with recommendations to improve and/or overcome shortfalls and deficiencies and formulates alternative courses of action for the solution of complex cross cutting issues.
  • Prepares Congressional testimony, policy documents, briefings, reports, summaries, responses to requests for information, and other substantive documents.
  • Qualifications
  • MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS:
  • GS-12:  Applicants must possess at least one year of specialized experience equivalent to at least the GS-11 grade level in the Federal Service.  Specialized experience is experience which is directly related to the position which has equipped the applicant with the particular knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs) to successfully perform the duties of the position to include experience providing assistance in evaluating and analyzing public health program operations (examples:  HIV/AIDS, TB, infectious diseases, and immunization).
  • GS-13:  Applicants must possess at least one year of specialized experience equivalent to at least the GS-12 grade level in the Federal Service.  Specialized experience is experience which is directly related to the position which has equipped the applicant with the particular knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs) to successfully perform the duties of the position to include experience independently evaluating and analyzing public health program operations (examples: HIV/AIDS, TB, infectious diseases, and immunization).
  • GS-14:  Applicants must possess at least one year of specialized experience equivalent to at least the GS-13 grade level in the Federal Service.  Specialized experience is experience which is directly related to the position which has equipped the applicant with the particular knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs) to successfully perform the duties of the position to include experience evaluating and analyzing public health program operations (examples: HIV/AIDS, TB, infectious diseases, and immunization) to include advising management on implementation and improvement initiatives.

Job Prospects (Excerpted from Occupational Handbook (OOH) published by the Department of Labor)

Job prospects for medical and health services managers are likely to be favorable. In addition to rising employment demand, the need to replace managers who retire over the next decade will result in some openings. Candidates with a master’s degree in health administration or a related field, as well as knowledge of healthcare IT systems, will likely have the best prospects.

Resources

Helpful Career Planning Tools

The information provided may not cover all aspects of unique or special circumstances, federal and postal regulations, and programs are subject to change. Our articles and replies are time sensitive. Over time, various dynamic human resource guidance and factors relied upon as a basis for this article may change. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation and this service is not affiliated with OPM, the postal service or any federal entity. You should consult with school counselors, hiring agency personnel offices, and human resource professionals where appropriate. Neither the publisher or author shall be liable for any loss or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages.

Financial Manager GS-0510 Jobs

Working as a Financial Manager (GS-0510) with the Federal Government

The federal government employs 13,078 in this occupation of which 79 work overseas. The DOD is the largest employer of this series with 2,409 accountants, the VA employs 775 and the  Department of the Army employs 1,067 civilians in this category. This series is used in all cabinet level departments, most large agencies and many small agencies.

This series covers positions that advise on or administer, supervise, or perform professional accounting work that requires application of accounting theories, concepts, principles, and standards to the financial activities of governmental, quasi-governmental, or private sector organizations. The work includes:

  • series covers positions that advise on or administer, supervise, or perform professional accounting work that requires application of accounting theories, concepts, principles, and standards to the financial activities of governmental, quasi-governmental, or private sector organizations. The work includes designing, developing, operating, or inspecting accounting systems;
  • prescribing accounting standards, policies, and requirements;
  • examining, analyzing, and interpreting accounting data, records, and reports; or
  • advising or assisting management on accounting and financial management matters.

Accounting theories, concepts, principles and standards address these types of duties:

  • determining the boundaries of an accounting entity;
  • recognizing and measuring revenues;
  • matching revenues and expenses by applying methodologies such as accrual accounting and depreciation;
  • defining and measuring costs by applying methodologies such as standard, process, job-order, and activity-based costing; and, full disclosure on financial statements.

Government Requirements:

  • You must be a U.S. citizen to apply
  • The yearly salary for a GS-7 to 9 is $35,359 to $81,541 per year

Typical Duties & Occupational Profile:

Financial Managers perform data analysis and advise senior managers on profit-maximizing ideas.  Financial managers are responsible for the financial health of an organization. They produce financial reports, direct investment activities, and develop strategies and plans for the long-term financial goals of their organization.

Duties

Financial managers typically do the following:

  • Prepare financial statements, business activity reports, and forecasts
  • Monitor financial details to ensure that legal requirements are met
  • Supervise employees who do financial reporting and budgeting
  • Review company financial reports and seek ways to reduce costs
  • Analyze market trends to maximize profits and find expansion opportunities
  • Help management make financial decisions
  • The role of the financial manager, particularly in business, is changing in response to technological advances that have substantially reduced the amount of time it takes to produce financial reports. Financial managers’ main responsibility used to be monitoring a company’s finances, but they now do more data analysis and advise senior managers on ways to maximize profits. They often work on teams, acting as business advisors to top executives.
  • Financial managers also do tasks that are specific to their organization or industry. For example, government financial managers must be experts on government appropriations and budgeting processes, and healthcare financial managers must know about topics in healthcare finance. Moreover, financial managers must be knowledgeable about special tax laws and regulations that affect their industry.

The role of the financial manager, particularly in business, is changing in response to technological advances that have substantially reduced the amount of time it takes to produce financial reports. Financial managers’ main responsibility used to be monitoring a company’s finances, but they now do more data analysis and advise senior managers on ways to maximize profits. They often work on teams, acting as business advisors to top executives.

Financial managers also do tasks that are specific to their organization or industry. For example, government financial managers must be experts on government appropriations and budgeting processes, and healthcare financial managers must know about topics in healthcare finance. Moreover, financial managers must be knowledgeable about special tax laws and regulations that affect their industry.

The following are examples of types of financial managers:

Controllers direct the preparation of financial reports that summarize and forecast the organization’s financial position, such as income statements, balance sheets, and analyses of future earnings or expenses. Controllers also are in charge of preparing special reports required by governmental agencies that regulate businesses. Often, controllers oversee the accounting, audit, and budget departments of their organization.

Treasurers and finance officers direct their organization’s budgets to meet its financial goals. They oversee the investment of funds and carry out strategies to raise capital (such as issuing stocks or bonds) to support the firm’s expansion. They also develop financial plans for mergers (two companies joining together) and acquisitions (one company buying another).

Credit managers oversee their firm’s credit business. They set credit-rating criteria, determine credit ceilings, and monitor the collections of past-due accounts.

Cash managers monitor and control the flow of cash in and out of the company to meet business and investment needs. For example, they must project cash flow to determine whether the company will have a shortage or surplus of cash.

Risk managers control financial risk by using strategies to limit or offset the probability of a financial loss or a company’s exposure to financial uncertainty. Among the risks they try to limit are those that stem from currency or commodity price changes.

Insurance managers decide how best to limit a company’s losses by obtaining insurance against risks, such as the need to make disability payments for an employee who gets hurt on the job or the costs imposed by a lawsuit against the company.

Education

A bachelor’s degree in finance, accounting, economics, or business administration is often the minimum education needed for financial managers. However, many employers now seek candidates with a master’s degree, preferably in business administration, finance, accounting, or economics. These academic programs help students develop analytical skills and learn financial analysis methods and software.

Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations

Although professional certification is not required, some financial managers still get it to demonstrate a level of competence. The CFA Institute confers the Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) certification to investment professionals who have at least a bachelor’s degree, 4 years of work experience, and pass three exams. The Association for Financial Professionals confers the Certified Treasury Professional credential to those who pass an exam and have a minimum of 2 years of relevant experience. Certified public accountants (CPA’s) are licensed by their state’s board of accountancy and must pass an exam administered by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA).

Work Experience in a Related Occupation

Financial managers usually have experience in another business or financial occupation. For example, they may have worked as a loan officer, accountant, securities sales agent, or financial analyst.

In some cases, companies provide formal management training programs to help prepare highly motivated and skilled financial workers to become financial managers.

Advancement

Experienced financial managers can advance to become chief financial officers (CFOs). These executives are responsible for the accuracy of an entire company’s or organization’s financial reporting.

Important Qualities

Analytical skills. Financial managers increasingly are assisting executives in making decisions that affect their organization, a task that requires analytical ability.

Communication skills. Excellent communication skills are essential because financial managers must explain and justify complex financial transactions.

Detail oriented. In preparing and analyzing reports such as balance sheets and income statements, financial managers must be precise and attentive to their work in order to avoid errors.

Math skills. Financial managers must be skilled in math, including algebra. An understanding of international finance and complex financial documents also is important.

Organizational skills. Because financial managers deal with a range of information and documents, they must stay organized to do their jobs effectively.

(Some of the above information was excerpted from the Bureau of Labor ooh.gov website)

GS-0510-Financial Management Analyst/Accountant/Auditor 
General qualifications excerpted from job Announcement # DE-10047630-17-SMS.

Duties

The selectee for this position will serve as a Financial Management Trainee with the Financial Management Career Program (FMCP).

The Financial Management Trainee Program (FMTP) is a 24-month training program for entry-level financial managers referred to as “Trainees.” To qualify for this program, you must have earned a qualifying bachelor’s degree within the past two years. Recent college graduates are hired by the FMCP for the DON as entry-level (GS-7/9/11) financial management analysts, accountants, and auditors (job series 501, 510, and 511, respectively). Trainees are officially assigned to the FMCP but are stationed at various Navy and Marine Corps activities, referred to as “Homeports,” throughout the DON. Following successful completion of their 24-month training program, Trainees graduate from the program and are considered for placement in suitable positions at their Homeports.

“The Financial Management Associate Program (FMAP) is a 24-month program for mid-level financial management personnel referred to as “Associates.” To qualify for this program, you must have earned a qualifying master’s degree within the past two years. Recent college graduates with relevant financial management analyst experience are hired by the FMCP as DON mid-level (GS-9/11/12) Financial Management Analysts, Accountants, and Auditors (job series 501, 510, and 511 respectively). Associates are officially assigned to the FMCP but are stationed at various Navy and Marine Corps activities, referred to as “Homeports.” Following successful completion of their 24-month program, FMAP Associates graduate from the program and are considered for placement in suitable positions at their Homeports”.
This is a Financial Management Level I certified position per the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) 2012, Section 1599d. This certification level must be achieved within prescribed timelines. Certification requirements are outlined in the DoD Instruction 1300.26.

Qualifications

The Direct Hire Authority for Financial Management Experts in the Department of Defense is used to appoint qualified candidates who possess a finance, accounting, management, or actuarial science degree, other related degree, or equivalent experience, to certain positions within the competitive service

Applicants applying to the Accountant or Auditor positions must meet the following basic education requirement:

Degree: accounting; or a degree in a related field such as business administration, finance, or public administration that included or was supplemented by 24 semester hours in accounting. The 24 hours may include up to 6 hours of credit in business law. Combination of education and experience: at least 4 years of experience in accounting, or an equivalent combination of accounting experience, college-level education, and training that provided professional accounting knowledge. The applicant’s background must also include one of the following:

1)Twenty-four semester hours in accounting or auditing courses of appropriate type and quality. This can include up to 6 hours of business law;

2) A certificate as Certified Public Accountant or a Certified Internal Auditor, obtained through written examination.

3) Completion of the requirements for a degree that included substantial course work in accounting or auditing, e.g., 15 semester hours, but that does not fully satisfy the 24-semester-hour requirement of paragraph A.

(a) the applicant has successfully worked at the full-performance level in accounting, auditing, or a related field, e.g., valuation engineering or financial institution examining;

(b) a panel of at least two higher level professional accountants or auditors has determined that the applicant has demonstrated a good knowledge of accounting and of related and underlying fields that equals in breadth, depth, currency, and level of advancement that which is normally associated with successful completion of the 4-year course of study described in paragraph A.

(c) except for literal nonconformance to the requirement

of 24 semester hours in accounting, the applicant’s education, training, and experience fully meet the specified requirements.

Additional information

This position is covered by the Department of Defense Priority Placement Program.

This position has promotion potential to the GS-11 (Trainee Program) or GS-12 (Associate Program) grade. If selected below the full performance level, incumbent may be noncompetitively promoted to the next higher grade level after meeting all regulatory requirements, and upon the recommendation of management. Promotion is neither implied nor guaranteed

Job Prospects (Excerpted from Occupational Handbook (OOH) published by the Department of Labor)

Employment of financial managers is projected to grow 19 percent from 2016 to 2026, much faster than the average for all occupations. However, growth will vary by industry.

Services provided by financial managers, such as planning, directing, and coordinating investments, are likely to stay in demand as the economy grows. In addition, several specialties within financial management, particularly cash management and risk management, are expected to be in high demand over the next decade.

In recent years, companies have accumulated more cash on their balance sheets, particularly among those with operations in foreign countries. As globalization continues, this trend is likely to persist. This should lead to demand for financial managers as companies will be in need of cash management expertise.

There has been an increased emphasis on risk management within the financial industry, and this trend is expected to continue. In response to both the financial crisis and financial regulatory reform, banking institutions will place a greater emphasis on stability and managing risk rather than on maximizing profits. This is expected to lead to employment growth for risk managers.

The depository credit intermediation industry (which includes commercial and savings banks) employs a large percentage of financial managers. As bank customers increasingly conduct transactions online, the number of bank branches is expected to decline, which should limit employment growth in this sector. However, employment declines are expected to mainly affect clerical occupations, such as tellers, rather than financial managers. From 2016 to 2026, employment of financial managers is projected to grow 14 percent in this industry.

As with other managerial occupations, jobseekers are likely to face competition because there are more applicants than job openings. Candidates with expertise in accounting and finance—particularly those with a master’s degree or certification—should enjoy the best job prospects.

Resources

Helpful Career Planning Tools

The information provided may not cover all aspects of unique or special circumstances, federal and postal regulations, and programs are subject to change. Our articles and replies are time sensitive. Over time, various dynamic human resource guidance and factors relied upon as a basis for this article may change. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation and this service is not affiliated with OPM, the postal service or any federal entity. You should consult with school counselors, hiring agency personnel offices, and human resource professionals where appropriate. Neither the publisher or author shall be liable for any loss or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages.

Administrative Officer (GS-0341) Jobs – Working for the Federal Government

The Administrative Officer Series includes positions in which the employees are responsible for providing or obtaining a variety of management services essential to the direction and operation of an organization. The paramount qualifications required are extensive knowledge and understanding of management principles, practices, methods and techniques, and skill in integrating management services with the general management of an organization.

Administrative management work is primarily concerned with providing, securing or negotiating for the resources or services needed to manage and run an organization. It involves direct assistance to the “operating” manager — i.e., the official with the primary responsibility for the direction of an organization or unit established to accomplish a basic goal or mission.

The federal government employs 9,285 administrative officers of which 345 work overseas. The Veterans Administration is the largest employer with 1,809 employed followed by the Health and Human Services with 1,301 and there are 1181 with the Department of the Army. All cabinet level and many large agencies employ this occupation.

An administrative officer aids the operating manager and subordinate operating officials in getting things done through his knowledge of and skills in dealing with organization, methods, funds, people, equipment, and other tools or resources of management. Ordinarily, he has a responsible role in the management of both financial and human resources because of his/her immediate relationship to the operating manager. He generally does key work in several other vital functions or services such as management analysis, procurement, contract administration, property management, space management, security administration, reports management, data processing, and similar or closely related activities.

An administrative officer is a generalist. The total management process is his interest, and the proficiency required involves many aspects of management. General management skills are the paramount requirement. Though aspects such as budget administration and personnel management assume major importance in many positions and other aspects such as procurement and property management are also important in many jobs, no single functional, resource or service area forms a basis for the paramount skills.

Federal Government Requirements:

  • You must be a U.S. citizen to apply
  • The yearly salary for a GS-11/12 is $72,303.00 to $112,665.00 per year (Santa Cruz, CA vacancy area). GS-12 is $71,012.00 to $92,316.00 per year (Kennesaw, WA vacancy area)

Typical Duties & Occupational Profile:

In the private sector, administrative officers are referred to as administrative services managers.

Administrative services managers plan, coordinate, and direct a broad range of services that allow organizations to operate efficiently.

Administrative services managers plan, direct, and coordinate supportive services of an organization. Their specific responsibilities vary, but administrative service managers typically maintain facilities and supervise activities that include recordkeeping, mail distribution, and office upkeep. In a small organization, they may direct all support services and may be called the business office manager. Large organizations may have several layers of administrative managers who specialize in different areas.

Duties

Administrative services managers typically do the following:

  • Buy, store, and distribute supplies
  • Supervise clerical and administrative personnel
  • Set goals and deadlines for their department
  • Develop, manage, and monitor records
  • Recommend changes to policies or procedures in order to improve operations, such as changing what supplies are kept or how to improve recordkeeping
  • Plan budgets for contracts, equipment, and supplies
  • Monitor the facility to ensure that it remains safe, secure, and well maintained
  • Oversee the maintenance and repair of machinery, equipment, and electrical and mechanical systems
  • Ensure that facilities meet environmental, health, and security standards and comply with government regulations

Administrative services managers plan, coordinate, and direct a broad range of services that allow organizations to operate efficiently. An organization may have several managers who oversee activities that meet the needs of multiple departments, such as mail, printing and copying, recordkeeping, security, building maintenance, and recycling.

The work of administrative services managers can make a difference in employees’ productivity and satisfaction. For example, an administrative services manager might be responsible for making sure that the organization has the supplies and services it needs. In addition, an administrative services manager who is responsible for coordinating space allocation might take into account employee morale and available funds when determining the best way to arrange a given physical space.

Administrative services managers also ensure that the organization honors its contracts and follows government regulations and safety standards.

Administrative services managers may examine energy consumption patterns, technology usage, and office equipment. For example, managers may recommend buying new or different equipment or supplies in order to lower energy costs or improve indoor air quality.

Administrative services managers also plan for maintenance and the future replacement of equipment, such as computers. A timely replacement of equipment can help save money for the organization, because eventually the cost of upgrading and maintaining equipment becomes higher than the cost of buying new equipment.

Education

A bachelor’s degree is typically required for someone to become an administrative services manager. However, some jobseekers may be able to enter the occupation with a high school diploma. Those with a bachelor’s degree typically study business, engineering, facility management, or information management.

Work Experience

Administrative services managers must have related work experience reflecting managerial and leadership abilities. For example, contract administrators need experience in purchasing and sales, as well as knowledge of the variety of supplies, machinery, and equipment that their organization uses. Managers who are concerned with supply, inventory, and distribution should be experienced in receiving, warehousing, packaging, shipping, transportation, and related operations.

Important Qualities

Analytical skills. Administrative services managers must be able to review an organization’s procedures and find ways to improve efficiency.

Communication skills. Much of an administrative services manager’s time is spent working with other people. Therefore, communication is a key quality.

Detail oriented. Administrative services managers must pay attention to details. This quality is necessary across a range of tasks, from ensuring that the organization complies with building codes to managing the process of buying equipment.

Leadership skills. In managing workers and coordinating administrative duties, administrative services managers must be able to motivate employees and deal with issues that may arise.

The occupational profile information was excerpted from the Occupational Handbook (OOH) published by the Department of Labor.

GS-0341 Administrative Officer (Excerpted from USA Job Announcement)

Duties

  • Manage processes and procedures while developing and implementing office initiatives and strategies
  • Serve as the principle administrative advisor providing management, oversight, and control of the business operations
  • Manage the unit’s administrative and financial operations.
  • Serve as the principal administrative and financial adviser to the management officials
  • Provides key assistance in vital services, such as management analysis, manpower, personnel, budget, workload reports, and automatic data processing
  • Studies regulations, reports, and work measurement data within the office, adjusting workloads, reorganizing or changing work processes, functions, and manpower
  • Manages the operating budget. Maintains operation of financial and automated systems activities; duties consist of preparing Government and contractual purchase requests, monitoring the expenditures, and ensuring proper commitments and billings
  • Represents the office in meetings.  Manages credit card accounts, commitments, obligations, and expenditures

The positions used as reference for the Federal Government positions were from the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, a part of Department of the Army. The employees for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers will provide emergency support to disaster stricken areas throughout the US. Employees must pass a stringent medical screening and be prepared to live and work in extremely austere conditions. Work schedule will initially be arduous, with much overtime. Sleeping arrangements may be limited to using a sleeping bag or in the vehicle used to move from location to location. The duty station for pay purposes for these positions is Kennewick, WA with possible 75% or Greater Business Travel in various locations throughout the US.

Job Prospects:

(Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projection Programs)

Applicants will likely face strong competition for the limited number of higher level administrative services management jobs. However, an increase in the expected number of retirements in upcoming years should produce more job openings. In addition, competition should be less intense for lower level management jobs. Job prospects also are expected to be better for those who can manage a wide range of responsibilities than for those who specialize in particular functions.

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Helpful Career Planning Tools

The information provided may not cover all aspects of unique or special circumstances, federal and postal regulations, and programs are subject to change. Our articles and replies are time sensitive. Over time, various dynamic human resource guidance and factors relied upon as a basis for this article may change. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation and this service is not affiliated with OPM, the postal service or any federal entity. You should consult with school counselors, hiring agency personnel offices, and human resource professionals where appropriate. Neither the publisher or author shall be liable for any loss or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages.

Management Analyst (GS-0343) Jobs With the Federal Government

These positions primarily serve as analysts and advisers to management on the evaluation of the effectiveness of government programs and operations or the productivity and efficiency of the management of Federal agencies or both.

Positions in this series require knowledge of: the substantive nature of agency programs and activities; agency missions, policies, and objectives; management principles and processes; and the analytical and evaluative methods and techniques for assessing program development or execution and improving organizational effectiveness and efficiency. Some positions also require an understanding of basic budgetary and financial management principles and techniques as they relate to long range planning of programs and objectives. The work requires skill in: application of fact-finding and investigative techniques; oral and written communications; and development of presentations and reports.

The federal government employs 70,919 management and program analysts of which 1,068 work overseas. The Department of the Navy is the largest employer with 9,516 civilians employed followed by the Department of the Army with 7,095 and there are 5,574 with the Veterans Administration. All cabinet level and large independent agencies employ substantial numbers in this series.

Federal Government Requirements:

  • You must be a U.S. citizen to apply
  • The yearly salary for a GS-12 is $79,720 to $103,639 per year

Typical Duties & Occupational Profile:

Management analysts, often called management consultants, propose ways to improve an organization’s efficiency. They advise managers on how to make organizations more profitable through reduced costs and increased revenues.

Duties

Management analysts typically do the following:

  • Gather and organize information about the problem to be solved or the procedure to be improved
  • Interview personnel and conduct onsite observations to determine the methods, equipment, and personnel that will be needed
  • Analyze financial and other data, including revenue, expenditure, and employment reports
  • Develop solutions or alternative practices
  • Recommend new systems, procedures, or organizational changes
  • Make recommendations to management through presentations or written reports
  • Confer with managers to ensure changes are working

Although some management analysts work for the organization that they analyze, most work as consultants on a contractual basis.

Whether they are self-employed or part of a large consulting company, the work of a management analyst may vary from project to project. Some projects require a team of consultants, each specializing in one area. In other projects, consultants work independently with the client organization’s managers.

Management analysts often specialize in certain areas, such as inventory management or reorganizing corporate structures to eliminate duplicate and nonessential jobs. Some consultants specialize in a specific industry, such as healthcare or telecommunications. In government, management analysts usually specialize by type of agency.

Organizations hire consultants to develop strategies for entering and remaining competitive in today’s marketplace.

Management analysts who work on contract may write proposals and bid for jobs. Typically, an organization that needs the help of a management analyst solicits proposals from a number of consultants and consulting companies that specialize in the needed work. Those who want the work must then submit a proposal by the deadline that explains how the consultant will do the work, who will do the work, why they are the best consultants to do the work, what the schedule will be, and how much it will cost. The organization that needs the consultants then selects the proposal that best meets its needs and budget.

Education

A bachelor’s degree is the typical entry-level requirement for management analysts. However, some employers prefer to hire candidates who have a master’s degree in business administration (MBA).

Few colleges and universities offer formal programs in management consulting. However, many fields of study provide a suitable education because of the range of areas that management analysts address. Common fields of study include business, management, economics, political science and government, accounting, finance, marketing, psychology, computer and information science, and English.

Analysts also routinely attend conferences to stay up to date on current developments in their field.

Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations

The Institute of Management Consultants USA (IMC USA) offers the Certified Management Consultant (CMC) designation to those who meet minimum levels of education and experience, submit client reviews, and pass an interview and exam covering the IMC USA’s code of ethics. Management consultants with a CMC designation must be recertified every 3 years. Management analysts are not required to get certification, but it may give jobseekers a competitive advantage.

Important Qualities

Analytical skills. Management analysts must be able to interpret a wide range of information and use their findings to make proposals.

Communication skills. Management analysts must be able to communicate clearly and precisely in both writing and speaking. Successful analysts also need good listening skills to understand the organization’s problems and propose appropriate solutions.

Interpersonal skills. Management analysts must work with managers and other employees of the organizations where they provide consulting services. They should work as a team toward achieving the organization’s goals.

Problem-solving skills. Management analysts must be able to think creatively to solve clients’ problems. Although some aspects of different clients’ problems may be similar, each situation is likely to present unique challenges for the analyst to solve.

Time-management skills. Management analysts often work under tight deadlines and must use their time efficiently to complete projects on time.

The occupational profile information was excerpted from the Occupational Handbook (OOH) published by the Department of Labor.

GS-0343 Management Analyst (Excerpted from USA Job Announcement)

Duties:

  • Analyzing, evaluating and improving efficiency of internal administrative operations and policy determinations
  • Conducting ongoing analysis of insurance programs nationally and for long-range planning involving the benefits available to Federal employees, annuitants and their families
  • Managing and assessing complex programs to ensure relevance and value proposition of employee benefits policies
  • Proposing changes to enhance benefits offered in the various programs;
  • Recommending and proposing management plans to administer the programs;
  • Preparing analysis of insurance programs to include the effects of the insured, Government agencies sponsoring the programs, administration of public policies and overall administration of the programs
  • Preparing analysis of pending or newly enacted legislation to determine effects on employee benefits

The positions used as reference for the Federal Government positions were from the Department of Health and Human Services in the Food and Drug Administration(FDA) and The Office of Personnel Management (OPM). The OPM job is in the Office of Planning & Policy Analysis (PPA), Policy Analysis Group. PPA provides direct support to the Director, U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) and the agency in the analysis of policy options, administrative and legislative initiatives. The organization is also responsible for providing the Director with the analyses needed to assess trends and issues impacting OPM, other Federal agencies and departments, and the Federal workforce.

Job Prospects:

(Source: U.S Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections Programs)

Employment of management analysts is projected to grow 14 percent from 2014 to 2024, much faster than the average for all occupations. Demand for consulting services is expected to grow as organizations seek ways to improve efficiency and control costs. As markets become more competitive, firms will need to use resources more efficiently.

Demand for management analysts is expected to be strong in healthcare. This industry segment is experiencing higher costs in part because of an aging population. In addition, federal health care reform has mandated changes to business practices for healthcare providers and insurance companies. More management analysts may be needed to help navigate these changes.

Growth will be particularly strong in smaller consulting companies that specialize in specific industries or types of business function, such as information technology or human resources. Government agencies will also seek the services of management analysts as they look for ways to reduce spending and improve efficiency.

Growth of international business will also contribute to an expected increase in demand for management analysts. As U.S. organizations expand their business abroad, many will hire management analysts to help them form the right strategy for entering the foreign market.

Jobseekers may face strong competition for management analyst positions because the high earning potential in this occupation makes it attractive to many jobseekers. Job opportunities are expected to be best for those who have a graduate degree or a certification, specialized expertise, fluency in a foreign language, or a talent for sales and public relations.

Credits

Helpful Career Planning Tools

The information provided may not cover all aspects of unique or special circumstances, federal and postal regulations, and programs are subject to change. Our articles and replies are time sensitive. Over time, various dynamic human resource guidance and factors relied upon as a basis for this article may change. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation and this service is not affiliated with OPM, the postal service or any federal entity. You should consult with school counselors, hiring agency personnel offices, and human resource professionals where appropriate. Neither the publisher or author shall be liable for any loss or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages.

Careers For Recent College Grads

It is the season when thousands of students march to the stage to receive their AA, BA or MA degrees from colleges and universities across the country. It’s a happy time for all, especially for parents who proudly witnessed their children receive that coveted diploma that only 40% of the citizens of the USA possess. But along with that diploma, 68% of recent college grads received an invoice for a student loan averaging $37,000, an unwelcome burden not only for the graduates but also for their parents. So now that our recent college grads have a diploma and a student loan to repay, what’s next?

 

What’s Next!

The good news is that this is the best time in the past ten years for college grads entering the job market. Our economy is virtually at full employment and employers are looking high and low for additional workers to maintain and grow their businesses. A recent survey by Career Builder reveals that 74 percent of employers contacted stated that they plan to hire recent college grads. And, a recent Forbes survey indicated that the starting salary range for recent college grads is $45,000-$53,000. Good times are here again….for those college grads who know what kind of work they want to do and how to find job opportunities that will provide a paycheck to enable them to become self-sufficient.

Some of our recent college grads have decided on a career path that will take them to graduate school or to a specific job niche in the private or public sector. However, most others do not have a clue about what happens after the applause, handshakes, and the trip back home to live with Mom and Dad. The conventional, but erroneous, wisdom says that the way to a job after graduation is to sit down and write a “killer” resume and send it to multiple jobs boards. Then, like magic, a job will appear that pays well and provides satisfaction for the rest of your working years. That is just not the way it works.

To make that job appear sooner rather than later, the recent college grad must look at job hunting as a process that includes: learning ones aptitude and abilities; targeting a specific job in a specific company; developing a personal relationship with the hiring manager and human resources director; preparing a creditable resume; learning the basic rules and protocols for interviewing; attending conferences and trade shows at local convention centers; learning how to network with established workers; making cold calls on companies located in office and industrial centers; learning how to negotiate a job offer; and finally establishing an office at home to make it all happen. Each step in the process is a learned skill for all workers but especially for the recent college grad entering the adult world of full time work. Sadly these skills are not taught in colleges which sends the learning process back in the lap of the recent college grads and their parents who still have the primary responsibility for educating their children, college degree notwithstanding.  All steps of the process are important but at the top of the list is leaving the house to find hiring managers in the flesh. You do that by making unscheduled calls at company offices and attending conferences and trade shows.

Learning what kinds of jobs are available is an important start in the job hunting process. According to recent surveys here are the best industry sectors for 2017 college grads.

  • Business and scientific services
  • Educational Services
  • Finance
  • Insurance
  • Healthcare
  • Government

Functionally, the job categories most in demand are:

  • Information technology
  • Customer service
  • Business development
  • Finance/accounting
  • Production

So where does a recent college grad begin to look for a job?  It’s more than just throwing darts at a board and hoping one will stick. Finding companies that offer cutting edge products and services is a good way to start. But, who are these companies?  To get you moving in the right direction, here are twenty companies recommended in The Muse Newsletter, www.themuse.com.

  1. Caesars Entertainment…casino gaming resorts in the USA and abroad
  2. World First…financial services focusing on cross country payments
  3. Polaris…. consulting and compliance services for healthcare and life sciences
  4. Taboola…helping publishers monetize their content
  5. Good Apple Digital…digital planning media services
  6. Bonobos…contemporary custom made men’s clothing
  7. CreditCards.com…partners with banks to provide credit cards for consumers
  8. Synapse…developer of transformative digital products
  9. BackCountry.com…online supplier of high quality outdoor gear worldwide
  10. Redfin…real estate brokerage services for buyers and sellers
  11. Vanguard….worldwide financial investment services
  12. Revcontent…delivers content recommendations using widget technology
  13. 540…provides cutting-edge technology solutions for government agencies
  14. Black Mountain Systems… IT workflow management for financial companies
  15. Hirevue…provides solutions to recruit, train and retain workers
  16. Bridgestone Americas…global supplier of products for manufacturing and mining
  17. Fluxx…digital grant management for philanthropy initiatives
  18. PrintFleet…provides data driven remote print management solutions
  19. Agile…information technology staffing, recruiting and personnel management
  20. Tillster…provides software to manage mobile payments to restaurants

These companies are noted for their employee friendly culture and for providing a work environment where workers will find life/work balance…..and a little fun. Their web pages provide images of their recent college grad workers and the company work environment.  Go to the Internet and research each company for job opportunities in your location.

For those not interested in private sector corporate jobs here are two viable alternatives.

  1. Joining the military…..Army, Marines, Air Force, Navy or Coast Guard. This is an option rarely considered by recent college grads because of a general misunderstanding about what happens in the military. The most common misperception is that joining the military means that you will be deployed immediately to fight in the trenches in some god forsaken place like Afghanistan. The reality is that for each active combat job, there are hundreds of jobs behind the scenes similar to jobs in the civilian world. The big plus for spending time in the military is that one learns lifelong leadership skills, discipline and focus. And, what could be a better way to begin your working life than to serve our country, to give back for all the blessings we have inherited for being born in America? In addition, serving in the military provides substantial benefits to all veterans, like tuition reimbursement to continue ones education, lifelong healthcare and a pension.
  2. Pursuing a federal government job. The federal government, the nation’s largest employer with over 2.5 million employees, offers interesting jobs that pay as much as or more than comparable jobs in the private sector. The majority of federal government jobs are not political jobs and most are located away from Washington DC. The focus of these jobs could be anything from law enforcement, environmental conservation to finance to cybersecurity… and everything in between. In addition, there is a federal government program titled, The Recent Graduates Program. Explore the many federal jobs that are available stateside and overseas.

To begin the process of finding a job straight out of college we recommend that all recent grads and their parents read the following books:

WELCOME TO THE REAL WORLD; A Complete Guide to Job Hunting for the Recent College Grad. John Henry Weiss.  Skyhorse Publishing Inc. This book is available in paperback and eBook from Amazon, B&N and the publisher.

The Book of U.S. Government Jobs. Dennis Damp. Bookhaven Press. This book is available in paperback and eBook from Amazon, B&N and the publisher

Occupational Outlook Handbook, U.S. Department of Labor. Jist Publishing Company. This book is available in paperback and eBook from Amazon, B&N and the publisher.

Moving Forward

There has never been a better time for recent college grads to look for a job because employers are seeking additional workers as our economy expands. Those who take the time to learn how the adult world of work really works and who follow the rules in this article and in the above cited books should have no trouble connecting with employers seeking intelligent, energetic and passionate recent college grads.

Copyright 2017 by John Henry Weiss Author of WELCOME TO THE REAL WORLD.

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The information provided may not cover all aspects of unique or special circumstances, federal and postal regulations, and programs are subject to change. Our articles and replies are time sensitive. Over time, various dynamic human resource guidance and factors relied upon as a basis for this article may change. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation and this service is not affiliated with OPM, the postal service or any federal entity. You should consult with school counselors, hiring agency personnel offices, and human resource professionals where appropriate. Neither the publisher or author shall be liable for any loss or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages.

Financial Systems Specialist (GS-0501) – Working For the Federal Government

The Financial System Specialist Series covers positions that perform, supervise, or manage administrative work of a fiscal, financial management, accounting or budgetary nature that is not classifiable to another more specific professional or administrative series in the Accounting and Budget Group, GS-0500.

There are no titles specified for this occupation. Agencies may construct titles that appropriately describe the work. The title, Financial Manager, is to be used only for positions classified to the Financial Management Series, GS-0505.

The federal government employs 25,086 in this occupation of which 455 work overseas. The Department of the Treasury employs 5,328, the Department of the Navy employs 5,345, and the Department of Defense has 2,816 workers in this series. There are workers in this series in all cabinet level departments, most large agencies and many small agencies.

Federal Government Requirements:

  • You must be a U.S. citizen to apply
  • The yearly salary range for a GS-11 is $59,246.00 to $77,019.00

 Typical Duties & Occupational Profile:

  • Recommend individual investments and collections of investments, which are known as portfolios
  • Evaluate current and historical financial data
  • Study economic and business trends
  • Examine a company’s financial statements to determine its value
  • Meet with company officials to gain better insight into the company’s prospects
  • Assess the strength of the management team
  • Prepare written reports

Financial analysts evaluate investment opportunities. They work in banks, pension funds, mutual funds, securities firms, insurance companies, and other businesses. Financial analysts are also called securities analysts and investment analysts.

Financial analysts can be divided into two categories: buy-side analysts and sell-side analysts.

  • Buy-side analysts develop investment strategies for companies that have a lot of money to invest. These companies, called institutional investors, include mutual funds, hedge funds, insurance companies, independent money managers, and nonprofit organizations with large endowments, such as some universities.
  • Sell-side analysts advise financial services sales agents who sell stocks, bonds, and other investments.

Some analysts work for the federal government , the business media or other research houses, which are independent from the buy and sell side.

Financial analysts generally focus on trends affecting a specific industry, geographical region, or type of product. For example, an analyst may focus on a subject area such as the energy industry, a world region such as Eastern Europe, or the foreign exchange market. They must understand how new regulations, policies, and political and economic trends may affect investments.

Investing is becoming more global, and some financial analysts specialize in a particular country or region. Companies want those financial analysts to understand the language, culture, business environment, and political conditions in the country or region that they cover.

Financial Analyst Types:

Portfolio managers select the mix of products, industries, and regions for their company’s investment portfolio. These managers are responsible for the overall performance of the portfolio. They are also expected to explain investment decisions and strategies in meetings with stakeholders.

Fund managers work exclusively with hedge funds or mutual funds. Both fund and portfolio managers frequently make buy or sell decisions in reaction to quickly changing market conditions.

Ratings analysts evaluate the ability of companies or governments to pay their debts, including bonds. On the basis of their evaluation, a management team rates the risk of a company or government not being able to repay its bonds.

Risk analysts evaluate the risk in investment decisions and determine how to manage unpredictability and limit potential losses. This job is carried out by making investment decisions such as selecting dissimilar stocks or having a combination of stocks, bonds, and mutual funds in a portfolio.

Education:

Most positions require a bachelor’s degree. A number of fields of study provide appropriate preparation, including accounting, economics, finance, statistics, and mathematics. For advanced positions, employers often require a master’s degree in business administration (MBA) or a master’s degree in finance. Knowledge of options pricing, bond valuation, and risk management are important.

Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations

The Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA) is the main licensing organization for the securities industry. It requires licenses for many financial analyst positions. Most of the licenses require sponsorship by an employer, so companies do not expect individuals to have these licenses before starting a job.

Certification is often recommended by employers and can improve the chances for advancement. An example is the Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) certification from the CFA Institute. Financial analysts can become CFA certified if they have a bachelor’s degree, 4 years of qualified work experience, and pass three exams. Financial analysts can also become certified in their field of specialty.

Advancement

Financial analysts typically start by specializing in a specific investment field. As they gain experience, they can become portfolio managers, who select the mix of investments for a company’s portfolio. They can also become fund managers, who manage large investment portfolios for individual investors. A master’s degree in finance or business administration can improve an analyst’s chances of advancing to one of these positions.

Important Qualities:

Analytical skills. Financial analysts must process a range of information in finding profitable investments.

Communication skills. Financial analysts must explain their recommendations to clients in clear language that clients can easily understand.

Computer skills. Financial analysts must be adept at using software packages to analyze financial data, see trends, create portfolios, and make forecasts.

Decision making skills. Financial analysts must provide a recommendation to buy, hold, or sell a security.

Detail oriented. Financial analysts must pay attention to details when reviewing possible investments, as small issues may have large implications for the health of an investment.

Math skills. Financial analysts use mathematical skills when estimating the value of financial securities

The occupational profile information was excerpted from the Occupational Handbook (OOH) published by the Department of Labor.

GS-0501 Financial Systems Specialist (Excerpted from USA Job Announcement)

Basic Requirements:

  • Bachelor’s degree
  • Knowledge of Financial System Administration
  • Skill in Written Communications
  • Ability to provide guidance on operating policies and other related fiscal matters

GS-11:

Must have at least one year of experience at the next lowest grade level.

Job Prospects:

(Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program)

Employment of financial analysts is projected to grow 12 percent from 2014 to 2024, faster than the average for all occupations.

Despite employment growth, strong competition is expected for financial analyst positions. Growth in financial services is projected to create new positions, but there are still far more people who would like to enter the occupation than there are jobs in the occupation. Having certifications and a graduate degree can significantly improve an applicant’s prospects.

Job Series Titles:(Click on the job title to view vacancies for government and private sector jobs) The USAJOBS selection lists all federal job vacancies for this job series.

Helpful Career Planning Tools 

The information provided may not cover all aspects of unique or special circumstances, federal and postal regulations, and programs are subject to change. Our articles and replies are time sensitive. Over time, various dynamic human resource guidance and factors relied upon as a basis for this article may change. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation and this service is not affiliated with OPM, the postal service or any federal entity. You should consult with school counselors, hiring agency personnel offices, and human resource professionals where appropriate. Neither the publisher or author shall be liable for any loss or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages.

 

Biomedical Engineers (GS-0858) – Working for the Federal Government

The biomedical engineer series covers positions managing, supervising, leading, and/or performing professional engineering and scientific work exploring and using biotechnology to:

  • Enrich practices, techniques, and knowledge in the medical, physiological, and biological sciences;
  • Enhance and ensure the health, safety, and welfare of living (i.e., human and animal) systems; and
  • Create and improve designs, instrumentation, materials, diagnostic and therapeutic devices, artificial organs, medical systems, and other devices (e.g., systems, equipment, application programs, and components) needed in the study and practice of medicine with living systems.

Jobs Hunt Hiring

The federal government employs 848 biomedical engineers. The Veterans Administration is the largest employer with 368 followed by the Department of Health and Human Services with 360 and the Department of the Army with 44. A few work for other agencies such as the DOD and Air Force.

Federal Government Requirements:

  • You must be a U.S. citizen to apply
  • The yearly salary range for a GS-12 is 75,329.00 to $97,927.00 per year

Occupational Profile:

The following information is excerpted from the Occupational Handbook (OOH) published by the Department of Labor:

Typical Duties:

  • Design equipment and devices, such as artificial internal organs, replacements for body parts, and machines for diagnosing medical problems
  • Install, adjust, maintain, repair, or provide technical support for biomedical equipment
  • Evaluate the safety, efficiency, and effectiveness of biomedical equipment
  • Train clinicians and other personnel on the proper use of equipment
  • Work with life scientists, chemists, and medical scientists to research the engineering aspects of the biological systems of humans and animals
  • Prepare procedures, write technical reports, publish research papers, and make recommendations based on their research findings
  • Present research findings to scientists, nonscientist executives, clinicians, hospital management, engineers, other colleagues, and the public
  • Biomedical engineers design instruments, devices, and software used in healthcare; bring together knowledge from many technical sources to develop new procedures; or conduct research needed to solve clinical problems
  • They often serve a coordinating function, using their background in both engineering and medicine. For example, they may create products for which an in-depth understanding of living systems and technology is essential. They frequently work in research and development or in quality assurance.

Biomedical engineers design electrical circuits, software to run medical equipment, or computer simulations to test new drug therapies. In addition, they design and build artificial body parts, such as hip and knee joints. In some cases, they develop the materials needed to make the replacement body parts. They also design rehabilitative exercise equipment.

The work of these engineers spans many professional fields. For example, although their expertise is based in engineering and biology, they often design computer software to run complicated instruments, such as three-dimensional x-ray machines. Alternatively, many of these engineers use their knowledge of chemistry and biology to develop new drug therapies. Others draw heavily on mathematics and statistics to build models to understand the signals transmitted by the brain or heart.

The following are examples of specialty areas within the field of biomedical engineering:

Bioinstrumentation uses electronics, computer science, and measurement principles to develop devices used in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.

Biomaterials is the study of naturally occurring or laboratory-designed materials that are used in medical devices or as implantation materials.

Biomechanics involves the study of mechanics, such as thermodynamics, to solve biological or medical problems.

Clinical engineering applies medical technology to optimize healthcare delivery.

Rehabilitation engineering is the study of engineering and computer science to develop devices that assist individuals with physical and cognitive impairments.

Systems physiology uses engineering tools to understand how systems within living organisms, from bacteria to humans, function and respond to changes in their environment.

Education:

Prospective biomedical engineering or bioengineering students should take high school science courses, such as chemistry, physics, and biology. They should also take math courses, including algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and calculus. Courses in drafting or mechanical drawing and in computer programming are also useful.

Bachelor’s degree programs in biomedical engineering and bioengineering focus on engineering and biological sciences. Programs include laboratory-based courses, in addition to classroom-based courses, in subjects such as fluid and solid mechanics, computer programming, circuit design, and biomaterials. Other required courses may include biological sciences, such as physiology.

Accredited programs also include substantial training in engineering design. Many programs include co-ops or internships, often with hospitals and medical device and pharmaceutical manufacturing companies, to provide students with practical applications as part of their study. Biomedical engineering and bioengineering programs are accredited by ABET.

Important Qualities:

Analytical skills. Biomedical engineers must be able to analyze the needs of patients and customers to design appropriate solutions.

Communication skills. Because biomedical engineers sometimes work with patients and frequently work on teams, they must be able to express themselves clearly. They must seek others’ ideas and incorporate those ideas into the problem-solving process.

Creativity. Biomedical engineers must be creative to come up with innovative and integrative advances in healthcare equipment and devices.

Math skills. Biomedical engineers use the principles of calculus and other advanced topics in mathematics, as well as statistics, for analysis, design, and troubleshooting in their work.

Problem-solving skills. Biomedical engineers typically deal with and solve problems in complex biological systems.

GS-0858 Biomedical Engineer (Excerpted from USA Job Announcement)

Basic Requirements:

  • Bachelor’s degree:  Professional engineering
  • Physical Requirement
  • English Language Proficiency

Grade Determination:

  • GS-12
  • Experience. Completion of at least 1 year of specialized experience equivalent to the next lower level; or completion of a post-doctoral research fellowship in the field of biomedical engineering.
  • The biomedical engineer is responsible for the professional and administrative management of a biomedical engineering section in a facility with complexity equal to a secondary care facility. Such individuals typically have responsibility for supervising technical staff including lower level engineers, biomedical engineering technicians, and other staff.

Job Prospects:

The field of biomedical engineering is projected to grow 23 percent from 2014 to 2024 based on data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statics. There will be a greater demand because of technological advances and the growing need to apply this to medical equipment and devices.

As our population ages, and lives longer there will be greater demand for these devices.  Biomedical engineers work with a variety of other job occupations such as scientists, medical researchers and medical device manufacturers.  Due to the nature of injuries and other physical disabilities there will be great demand these products and services and biomedical engineering can fill this need.

Job Series Titles:(Click on the job title to view job vacancies for government and private sector jobs.) The USAJOBS selection lists all federal job vacancies for this job series.

Helpful Career Planning Tools 

The information provided may not cover all aspects of unique or special circumstances, federal and postal regulations, and programs are subject to change. Our articles and replies are time sensitive. Over time, various dynamic human resource guidance and factors relied upon as a basis for this article may change. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation and this service is not affiliated with OPM, the postal service or any federal entity. You should consult with school counselors, hiring agency personnel offices, and human resource professionals where appropriate. Neither the publisher or author shall be liable for any loss or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages.

 

Architect (GS-0808) Jobs With the Federal Government

Architects manage, supervise, lead, and/or perform professional architecture work involving the art and science of conceptualizing, planning, developing, and implementing designs, they ensure that buildings and structures are responsive to human activities and needs, are structurally sound and permanent, and economical to acquire, operate, and maintain.

 

Architect on Computer

The federal government employs 1,839 architects of which 81 work overseas. The Departments of the Army, Navy and Air force employ 1,000 civilians followed by the General Services Administration (GSA) with 181, and the Interior Department with 132. There are architects employed at most of the cabinet level agencies and in a few large independent agencies.

Federal Government Requirements:

  • You must be a U.S. citizen to apply
  • The yearly salary range for a GS-11 is $60,210.00 to $78,270.00/per year

Occupational Profile:

The following information is excerpted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook (OOH) published by the Department of Labor:

Typical Duties:

  • Meet with clients to determine objectives and requirements for structures
  • Give preliminary estimates on cost and construction time
  • Prepare structure specifications
  • Direct workers who prepare drawings and documents
  • Prepare scaled drawings, either with computer software or by hand
  • Prepare contract documents for building contractors
  • Manage construction contracts
  • Visit worksites to ensure that construction adheres to architectural plans
  • Seek new work by marketing and giving presentations

Architects discuss the objectives, requirements, and budget of a project with clients. In some cases, architects provide various predesign services, such as feasibility and environmental impact studies, site selection, cost analyses, and design requirements.

Architects develop final construction plans after discussing and agreeing on the initial proposal with clients. These plans show the building’s appearance and details of its construction. Accompanying these plans are drawings of the structural system; air-conditioning, heating, and ventilating systems; electrical systems; communications systems; and plumbing. Sometimes, landscape plans are included as well. In developing designs, architects must follow state and local building codes, zoning laws, fire regulations, and other ordinances, such as those requiring easy access to buildings for people who are disabled.

Computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) and building information modeling (BIM) have replaced traditional drafting paper and pencil as the most common methods for creating designs and construction drawings. However, hand-drawing skills are still required, especially during the conceptual stages of a project and when an architect is at a construction site.

As construction continues, architects may visit building sites to ensure that contractors follow the design, adhere to the schedule, use the specified materials, and meet work-quality standards. The job is not complete until all construction is finished, required tests are conducted, and construction costs are paid.

Architects may also help clients get construction bids, select contractors, and negotiate construction contracts.

Education

In all states, earning a professional degree in architecture is typically the first step to becoming an architect. Most architects earn their professional degree through a 5-year Bachelor of Architecture degree program, intended for students with no previous architectural training. Many earn a master’s degree in architecture, which can take 1 to 5 years in addition to the time spent earning a bachelor’s degree. The amount of time required depends on the extent of the student’s previous education and training in architecture.

A typical bachelor’s degree program includes courses in architectural history and theory, building design with an emphasis on computer-aided design and drafting (CADD), structures, construction methods, professional practices, math, physical sciences, and liberal arts. Central to most architectural programs is the design studio, where students apply the skills and concepts learned in the classroom to create drawings and three-dimensional models of their designs.

Currently, 34 states require that architects hold a professional degree in architecture from one of the 123 schools of architecture accredited by the National Architectural Accrediting Board (NAAB). State licensing requirements can be found at the National Council of Architectural Registration Boards (NCARB). In the states that do not have that requirement, applicants can become licensed with 8 to 13 years of related work experience in addition to a high school diploma. However, most architects in these states still obtain a professional degree in architecture.

Training

All state architectural registration boards require architecture graduates to complete a lengthy paid internship—generally 3 years of experience—before they may sit for the Architect Registration Examination. Most new graduates complete their training period by working at architectural firms through the Intern Development Program (IDP), a program run by NCARB that guides students through the internship process. Some states allow a portion of the training to occur in the offices of employers in related careers, such as engineers and general contractors. Architecture students who complete internships while still in school can count some of that time toward the 3-year training period.

Interns in architectural firms may help design part of a project. They may help prepare architectural documents and drawings, build models, and prepare construction drawings on CADD. Interns may also research building codes and write specifications for building materials, installation criteria, the quality of finishes, and other related details. Licensed architects will take the documents that interns produce, make edits to them, finalize plans, and then sign and seal the documents.

Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations

All states and the District of Columbia require architects to be licensed. Licensing requirements typically include completing a professional degree in architecture, gaining relevant experience through a paid internship, and passing the Architect Registration Examination.

Most states also require some form of continuing education to keep a license, and some additional states are expected to adopt mandatory continuing education. Requirements vary by state but usually involve additional education through workshops, university classes, conferences, self-study courses, or other sources.

A growing number of architects voluntarily seek certification from NCARB. This certification makes it easier to become licensed across states, because it is the primary requirement for reciprocity of licensing among state boards that are NCARB members. In 2014, approximately one-third of all licensed architects had the certification.

Advancement

After many years of work experience, some architects advance to become architectural and engineering managers. These managers typically coordinate the activities of employees and may work on larger construction projects.

Important Qualities

  • Analytical skills. Architects must understand the content of designs and the context in which they were created. For example, architects must understand the locations of mechanical systems and how those systems affect building operations.
  • Communication skills. Architects share their ideas, both in oral presentations and in writing, with clients, other architects, and workers who help prepare drawings. Many also give presentations to explain their ideas and designs.
  • Creativity. Architects design the overall look of houses, buildings, and other structures. Therefore, the final product should be attractive and functional.
  • Organizational skills. Architects often manage contracts. Therefore, they must keep records related to the details of a project, including total cost, materials used, and progress.
  • Technical skills. Architects need to use CADD technology to create plans as part of building information modeling (BIM).
  • Visualization skills. Architects must be able to see how the parts of a structure relate to each other. They also must be able to visualize how the overall building will look once completed.

GS-0808 Architectural Series (Excerpted from OPM.Gov)

Individual Occupational Requirements

Basic Requirements:

  1. Degree: architecture; or related field that included 60 semester hours of course work in architecture or related disciplines of which at least (1) 30 semester hours were in architectural design, and (2) 6 semester hours were in each of the following: structural technology, properties of materials and methods of construction, and environmental control systems.

OR

  1. Combination of education and experience — college-level education, training, and/or technical experience that furnished (1) a thorough knowledge of the arts and sciences underlying professional architecture, and (2) a good understanding, both theoretical and practical, of the architectural principles, methods, and techniques and their applications to the design and construction or improvement of buildings. The adequacy of such background must be demonstrated by at least one of the following:
    1. Related Curriculum: Degree in architectural engineering may be accepted as satisfying in full the basic requirements, provided the completed course work in architectural engineering provided knowledge, skills, and abilities substantially equivalent to those provided in the courses specified in paragraph A. The curriculum for a degree in either architecture or architectural engineering covers function, esthetics, site, structure, economics, mechanical-electrical, and other engineering problems related to the design and construction of buildings primarily (but not exclusively) intended to house human activities. The courses required for a degree in architecture generally place emphasis upon planning, esthetics, and materials and methods of construction, while the courses for an architectural engineering degree place equal or greater weight on the technical engineering aspects such as structural systems, mechanical systems, and the properties of materials. Because of this difference in emphasis, persons with degrees in architecture may have a preference for work assignments that offer greater opportunities for them to express their artistic and creative abilities. As a result, they may be more concerned with planning and design aspects of architecture, and persons with degrees in architectural engineering may be more engaged in aspects emphasizing technical engineering considerations.
    2. Experience: An applicant lacking a degree in architecture must have had l year of experience in an architect’s office or in architectural work for each year short of graduation from a program of study in architecture. In the absence of college courses, 5 years of such experience is required. This experience must have demonstrated that the applicant has acquired a thorough knowledge of the fundamental principles and theories of professional architecture.

Alternate Requirements for GS-7:

  1. Successful completion of a 5-year program of study of at least 160 semester hours leading to a Bachelor of Architecture or higher degree in an accredited college or university is qualifying for GS-7.
  2. Applicants with an architecture degree who have appropriate experience as a technician equivalent to grade GS-5 or higher may have such experience credited for grade GS-7 only on a month-for-month basis up to a maximum of 12 months.

(Note: These provisions also apply to graduates of architectural engineering curricula.)

Registration: Candidates registered to practice architecture by one of the State registration boards, using standards in compliance with the basic minimum provisions recommended by the National Council of Architectural Registration Boards, are recognized as meeting the full requirements for eligibility at GS-11.

Nonqualifying Experience: The following kinds of experience are not acceptable as professional architectural experience: professional landscape architecture work consisting mainly of the layout, design, construction, or maintenance of land areas and landscape features, including ground and water forms, vegetation, roads, walks, incidental structures, and other landscape features; experience in the application of artistic embellishment to practical design such as the decoration of interiors, including the construction, layout, and selection of furniture and furnishings that do not alter the basic architectural design of the interior; city and community planning work that relates to the broad social and economic growth and development of such community services and facilities as industry, commerce, transportation, streets, utilities, and parks.

Architectural Registration as a Selective Factor: Registration as a professional architect is an appropriate selective factor for appointment to certain, typically high-level, architect positions. The key consideration is that registration must be essential for acceptable performance of the work of the position to be filled. Accordingly, it is an appropriate requirement for positions with duties and responsibilities that satisfy one of the following criteria:

  • Responsibility for final approval of design standards and criteria for designs of major buildings and related structures involving public safety where such compliance with State laws meets an essential need of the architectural organization to provide objective evidence to agency management and the public that the work is performed by architects of proven competence.
  • Responsibility for architectural determinations concerning contract awards or other major aspects of design and construction work to be performed by architects in the private sector where registration is essential to have their full confidence and respect to achieve cooperation on critical architectural issues.

Some architect positions in the Federal service have duties and responsibilities that would support a requirement for registration. The position description should clearly document the basis for the registration requirement. It would not be appropriate to require that candidates be registered for positions with less responsibility than that indicated above, for positions that involve responsibilities and functions such as research, or for the sole purpose of improving the “image” of architects in the Federal service. Because of the importance of registration for those positions where it is an appropriate requirement, such positions have been characteristically filled by registered professional architects. If a currently filled position is newly identified as requiring a registered architect, the requirement for registration should be waived for the duration of the employee’s incumbency.

Additional Qualification Requirement: (Excerpted from USAJobs Announcement)

At least one full year of specialized experience comparable in scope and responsibility to the GS-09 level (obtained in either the public or private sectors). This experience must include activities such as: 1) examining architectural drawings, plans, designs, specifications and exhibits for construction projects; (2) performing architectural work in the development and/or design of buildings, runways, utility systems and unimproved, semi-improved and improved roads and grounds; (3) reviewing design calculations, cost estimates, drawings, and specifications to ensure project compliance; and  (4) coordinating all design phases with appropriate managers and staff.

Per the Bureau of Labor Statics, architects held about 112,600 jobs in 2014, with 69 percent employed in architectural, engineering, and related services. About 1 in 5 were self-employed.

Additionally, architects spend much of their time in offices, where they meet with clients, develop reports and drawings, and work with other architects and engineers. They also visit construction sites to ensure clients’ objectives are met and to review the progress of projects.

Architects are a growing field and will be in demand for many years to come.

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Job Listings

The information provided may not cover all aspects of unique or special circumstances, federal and postal regulations, and programs are subject to change. Our articles and replies are time sensitive. Over time, various dynamic human resource guidance and factors relied upon as a basis for this article may change. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation and this service is not affiliated with OPM, the postal service or any federal entity. You should consult with school counselors, hiring agency personnel offices, and human resource professionals where appropriate. Neither the publisher or author shall be liable for any loss or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages.